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Francis McCarty, age 13, at his wireless telephone in 1902. The telegraph key beneath his hand was simply used as a switch to turn on the transmitter.
Francis McCarty in 1905
Francis McCarty from a San Francisco Call
Another newspaper view of McCarty
Experiments in radio voice transmission began in San Francisco as early as the discovery of the art itself. History tells us that Lee DeForest demonstrated the first practical radiotelephone in 1907, utilizing his invention, the Audion tube. Prior to that, several experimenters succeeded in transmitting the human voice, although their devices were not entirely practical for one reason or another. Professor Reginald Fessenden of the University of Pittsburgh first transmitted the voice in 1900 while experimenting for the U.S. Weather Bureau. He used a spark transmitter for this experiment, and the noise produced by the spark rendered his voice almost completely unintelligible. On December 11, 1906, he succeeded in transmitting a clear and intelligible signal from his laboratory in Brant Rock, Massachusetts. He used a high speed alternator specially designed for the purpose by Ernst Alexanderson of the Westinghouse Electric Co. The alternator, while able to produce a clear continuous wave signal, was prohibitively expensive for most uses, and not practical for use on shipboard, where most of the need for radio existed at the time.
During this same period, experiments in the transmission of the human voice were taking place in San Francisco. However, due to the untimely death of the young experimenter, Francis McCarty, his work has been largely forgotten by history.
Francis J. McCarty was born in Hayes Valley in 1888, and later moved to San Francisco. Inventiveness was already a part of his heritage; his grandfather, William Lynch, had patented a type of glass tile flooring he called "Lynch's Illuminating Ventilating Tile". His uncle, Dan "White Hat" McCarty had been locally known by wireless enthusiasts for his early work in wireless telegraphy.
Francis' only schooling was at St. Ignatius' College (now the University of San Francisco), which he left at the age of twelve. But his lack of formal schooling did not detract from his interest in educating himself. His brother Ignatius recalled "He was always studying and tinkering. He was a great one for going around and getting information ... " He related his brother's earliest experiments to a San Francisco Chronicle reporter in 1950:
Francis started his experiments to demonstrate that the Hertzian wave would transmit voice in 1902, when we lived on Hermann Street, near the Mint. We used to take the apparatus out to Golden Gate Park, and talk across Stow Lake.The lanky young boy -- he was nearly six feet tall, and just fourteen at the time -- experimented in his spare time, when he was not working at his job as an apprentice electrician. The year after the Stow Lake experiments, he made his first transmission of any notable distance. Stationed by a receiver at his home at Gough and Grove Streets, he heard his brother's voice transmitted from the top of Mount Olympus, nearly two miles away. In the ensuing two years, McCarty continued to improve and test his spark telephone. He achieved a distance of seven miles over water, and was convinced that its range could be made to equal that of the wireless telegraph.
Realizing the value of his experiments, McCarty contacted lawyers in an effort to patent his device, and to seek advice on marketing his "wireless telephone". His attorneys, L. Seidenberg and George M. Davis, urged him to find financial backing. Ignatius McCarty recalled his brothers' efforts to attract monetary assistance:
I remember that he called one day on Senator Phelan, in his office in the Phelan Building. "You mean to tell me," the Senator said, "that I could sit here in my office and talk to someone in an office on the other side of Market Street, without the use of telephone wires?" Francis told him yes, it could be done by means of his invention, the wireless telephone. "Why," Senator Phelan said, "that is absurd. The waves, or whatever they are, would get mixed up with all the street sounds. If he could get the waves from my voice, he gets the waves from the horse cars, carriages and everything else on the street. He wouldn't be able to make heads or tails out of what I was saying."However, McCarty persisted, and at length attracted interested backers, notably John McCann, former Sheriff of San Joaquin County. Together, they organized the McCarty Wireless Telephone Company, and issued 200,000 shares of stock, selling at a dollar a share. Francis received 100,050 shares, and controlling interest in the company.
The investor's brochure issued by the company made a presentation intended to discourage views such as Senator Phelan's. Centered on the first page in large letters was the statement, "Things move along so rapidly now-a-days that people who say 'It can't be done' are interrupted by somebody doing it." The pamphlet went on to tell of some of the fields which could be opened up at enormous profit by a wireless telephone having a range of only five miles. It mentioned communication with ships at sea, with trains in motion, with remote mining areas and lumber camps, with islands, and with ambulances and ammunition wagons in the field in time of war.
The public was first introduced to McCarty's wireless telephone at a public demonstration given at the Cliff House September 2, 1905. Newspaper reporters were invited to attend the demonstration. McCarty and his assistants erected their equipment in the Cliff House carpenter shop, located in the basement.
The reporters were allowed to inspect the transmitter and antenna strung to the top of the Cliff House. They dug trenches around the building to assure themselves there were no underground wires connected to the equipment. They then stationed themselves at the receiver, located a mile down the beach, in the store room of the vacant "Cycler's Rest". Here again, they inspected the receiver, and inspected the antenna strung from the cupola of the building. Finally, they announced that everything was in order, and stationed themselves at their headsets. An assistant waved a large white handkerchief from a bamboo pole. This was the sign to McCarty that the reporters were ready to begin the demonstration. McCarty switched on his transmitter. The first voice sounded, as the Chronicle reporter put it, "like the far hum of bees". The assistant again waved his banner, and McCarty increased the power at the transmitter. The reporter relates, "The the sound came in stronger -- something like the tantalizing tones of a worn-out phonograph. The 'Hello! Hello!' was guessable, but the rest was a jumble of indeterminable vowel sounds."Once more McCarty stepped up his power, and the voices grew clearer. He began to sing. The newspapermen heard "Auld Lang Syne" from start to finish without missing a note. This was followed by "Hiawatha", "In the Good Old Summertime", "Holy City" and "Home Sweet Home". Between the songs McCarty would call out, "Hello! Hello! Is this Mr. Seidenberg? Is this Mr. Davis? Is this Mr. McAlfrey? This is McCarty at the Cliff House."
After singing his five selections, McCarty, to the accompaniment of breakers on the beach, bid the reporters a farewell with "That's all; that's all."
The reporters were aghast at the demonstration. To their knowledge, nothing like what they had just heard had ever been done before. The Chronicle reporter commented, "It appears that a San Francisco boy, just past seventeen, has solved the problem which gray-bearded scientists have declared impossible of solution."
Of course, as mentioned earlier, Fessenden had succeeded in
transmitting the voice as early as 1900, two years before McCarty's
first experiments. However, he felt his experiments were unsuccessful,
because of the very raspy sound obtained, and continued his experiments
until he was able to transmit a "clean" signal with the alternator, a
year after McCarty's Cliff House demonstration. Thus, the question of
whether or not McCarty's transmission represented a significant
milestone depends on whether or not the sound quality of his apparatus
was significantly better than Fessenden's. The Chronicle reporter
made this statement of the sound quality:
Meanwhile, experimental stations of the "McCarty Wireless
Telephone Company" were being installed. One was constructed in a shack
at the Sunset Sand Dunes, at approximately what is now 45th Avenue and
Lawton Street. Ignatius recalled,
The McCarty Wireless Telephone Company seemed destined for success. Indeed, all of San Francisco was optimistic about its future during the first months of 1906. However, this optimism was shattered the morning of April 18, 1906, the day of the great San Francisco earthquake and fire. The terrific destruction of that day changed things greatly for San Franciscans, and the mark it left on the McCarty Wireless Telephone Company would not be erased.
The earthquake not only interrupted McCarty's work. Public pre-occupation with the disaster in the months to follow caused them to all but forget about the young boy's experiments. This lost public interest would never be regained.
During the reconstruction period, the company offices were moved to Broadway and Twelfth Street in Oakland. Because he now needed transportation to and from Oakland, McCarty bought what was known as a "rent-collector's cart", a small two-wheeled cart without a top he could take to and from work on the Bay ferry.
About a month after the earthquake, another disaster struck the Company. Late in the afternoon, soon after McCarty started home from his Oakland office, a pedestrian stepped into the road directly in front of his cart. McCarty swerved the cart toward the sidewalk, and its wheels crashed into the high curbing. McCarty was thrown out of the cart and hurled against a telephone pole. Minutes later, he was dead, just two weeks short of his eighteenth birthday.
McCarty had been the impetus behind the Company's existence. Without his inventive genius, much of the Company's momentum was lost. However, his brother Ignatius tried to carry on the operations. The station in the sand dunes shack continued to be operated, along with the experimental stations set up in St. Ignatius' College and at Hayes and Schrader Streets.
Dick Johnstone of Larkspur remembers hearing the station's
experimental transmissions about 1908, in what may have been the
world's first recorded music program. He said,
I accompanied Ignatius and a couple of priests from the College to the shack in the sand dunes. We went out in a horse and wagon, gathered up the equipment and material, and took it back to the College. After that, the station was abandoned.Thus, what began as a revolutionary concept ended in obscurity and failure. Francis McCarty, the teen-aged boy genius, died before his ideas could ever bear fruit. It can only be speculated how things would have turned out had the McCarty Wireless Telephone Company been a success, or what other devices McCarty might have lived to invent.
Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry. MacLaurin, Rupert.